Infested leaves become yellow-whitish and wither, seedlings often die. Brown spots appear on leaves and leaf sheaths of surviving plants. Stems may also bear spots and these become darker brown at upper inter-nodes of the stem. Ears may not emerge or may show swellings and become twisted and distorted. Plants usually don’t produce any grains. Diseased plant debris does carry the disease which is caused by nematodes.

Control options

Cultural control: Apply crop rotation. Grow early maturing varieties, use healthy seeds and plough the field thoroughly after harvest so as to expose the soil to sun-heat.

Chemical control: a nematicide may be applied in heavily affected fields, see Green & Yellow List for details.